Marlins+1.44-0.08+0.19 SENTIMENT SCORE Red Sox+0.63-0.27-0.12 Twins+0.41-0.03-0.10 Pirates+0.92-0.13-0.07 Reds+0.58-0.04-0.22 Rangers+0.24-0.78-0.08 Orioles+0.43-0.07+0.08 Giants+0.50-0.04+0.05 Baseball teams have a way of dragging their fans’ moods with their fortunes on the field. It’s no fun to root for a perpetually losing team, especially if its performance seems unlikely to improve. Conversely, an unexpected contender has a way of lifting one’s spirits.But wins and losses are much easier to measure than happiness. We do have a proxy, though: the masses at Reddit. I scraped comments from each team’s subreddit1Using this script to get text from specific subreddits. on the website and determined how happy their comments were.2In technical terms, the valence of each subreddit, or how positive it was. To do this, I used the AFINN-111 word list, which was assembled by Finn Arup Nielsen in 2011. To do that I used sentiment analysis, collecting the words used by each fan base to determine their overall level of joy. More positive words (“win,” “wow,” “wonderful”) point to a happier fan base, and more negative words (“unimpressed,” “miserable,” “wrong”) suggest the opposite.Here are some highlights of what I found (a full table is at the bottom of this post):There are some caveats, as there always are with sentiment analysis. The word list I used was calibrated to a sentiment analysis of Twitter — it’s possible that language is used differently on Reddit, and so the sentiment scores may not be as calibrated to the medium as they would be if we had Reddit-centric sentiment scoring. For example, the word “damn” is rated as strongly negative, since it is usually a negative exclamation (“damn, we lost again”). However, it can also be used in a positive sense: “damn, that was our fifth straight win, we are pretty good.” And maybe people on Reddit “damn” more positively than the hordes on Twitter. (The same can go for any word used atypically in any sentence, making its meaning different from how the algorithm interpreted it.) Also, people who write on Reddit do not constitute a random sample of a team’s fans.But let’s get back to the results. Hope springs eternal in the offseason but is extinguished for many fan bases by July.3All measurements come from three time periods: one preseason (Feb. 15 to March 15), one pre-trade-deadline (June 15 to July 15), and one crossing the trade deadline (July 15 to Aug. 15). That makes sense given how many teams don’t have any hope left. In the preseason, only one team — the Phillies — had playoff odds less than 1 percent, per FanGraphs. Now, 11 teams have odds less than 1 percent. Sentiment scores per word — our index of happiness — tended to be between 0.3 and 1 on the sentiment scale in the offseason, indicating that the average word was a positive one (between a neutral word and the word “agreement”). Nowadays, the same scores have plunged. Clearly the grind of the MLB season wears on the fans’ happiness as it does the players.Every fan base lost some of its happiness from the preseason, save one: the Chicago Cubs, who increased their sentiment score by a bit. The Cubs have not only been contenders in the crowded National League Central, they have also seen a number of top prospects called up, most notably Kris Bryant (but also Addison Russell and Kyle Schwarber). Not only are the Cubs contending a little earlier than expected — the future is even brighter.All other teams’ fans have become much less happy since February, but not all by the same amount. The change in sentiment score from February to July is roughly in proportion to the change in playoff odds of each team.4The correlation coefficient is r = -.3, which is not quite significant. Teams that made strides in their playoff hopes such as the Yankees, Angels and Dodgers have seen the smallest declines in sentiment since February. At the other end of the spectrum, teams such as the Mariners, Athletics and Padres have seen their playoff odds tumble. Their fan bases also have had some of the most pronounced declines in sentiment scores per word.From July to August, sentiment scores were steady, fluctuating about four times less than they did from February to July.5The Pearson correlation value was a strong .746. The trade deadline didn’t seem to do much to move the needle in terms of fan happiness, but the teams that did gain are mostly the ones you’d expect: the Blue Jays (who strengthened their roster enormously), the Cardinals (who locked down a playoff spot) and a few others who were riding winning streaks. On the other side, the Tigers lost happiness, witnessing their championship window close and their highly regarded general manager leave.Although on-field success can buy happiness, it doesn’t seem to work for every team. The Royals have gained the most playoff probability of any team since the preseason, but they lost the fourth-most happiness from the offseason to July. There are any number of potential reasons6Including the All-Star controversy, an injury to their star player (Alex Gordon), and enmity from other teams/fan bases. for the relative grumpiness of Royals fans, but one may be that fans were more optimistic about the Royals than the projection systems. While contention in Kansas City may seem surprising to sabermetricians, it may not to Royals fans who were riding high off a World Series appearance.Conversely, failure on the field isn’t necessarily enough to dissuade a happy fan base. The Phillies, hopeless since the beginning of the year, nevertheless have fans who aren’t that much sadder than they were before the season. Despite the loss of erstwhile ace Cole Hamels at the trade deadline, fans have gotten happier since July — his trade and others signaled a shift in direction for the team toward rebuilding. As above with the Cubs, fan bases seem to not only weigh the present but also to consider the prospect for future improvement.There are also some inexplicable cases such as that of the Rays, whose fan base declined in sentiment much more dramatically than their playoff odds would lead one to expect. It’s possible that the Rays’ 4-8 slide in July before the All-Star break had something to do with it, or the seven-game losing streak from June 28 to July 4. The streaks, winning and losing, may play havoc with fans’ emotions, causing people to see false patterns suggesting imminent decline in what is mostly random fluctuation.Obviously, we’re grasping for answers as to why fans are happier or sadder as the season goes by. But the general trend seems to be that a complex calculus of current performance and hope for the future dictates how happy each team’s fan base feels. Of course, it all resets come March. Hang tight, Reds fans. Only a few more months to go. Cubs+0.49+0.74+0.84 Rockies+0.88+0.13+0.12 Mariners+1.07-0.38-0.35 Indians+0.66+0.05-0.02 Angels+0.28+0.21+0.08 Dodgers+0.29+0.07-0.15 Tigers+0.55+0.15-0.11 Brewers+0.71-0.29-0.06 Mets+0.23-0.19-0.04 Rays+2.24+0.04+0.27 Nationals+0.61-0.11-0.18 Yankees+0.90+0.62+0.74 Royals+0.85-0.27-0.20 Braves+0.46+0.11+0.08 Cardinals+0.44-0.26-0.02 TEAMFEBRUARYJULYAUGUST White Sox+0.940.00-0.07 Padres+0.94-0.11+0.13 Diamondbacks+0.28+0.04+0.17 Blue Jays+0.28-0.03+0.21 Astros+0.87+0.09+0.11 Athletics+0.62+0.10+0.10 Phillies+0.35+0.05+0.35
Elo’s dumbest (and smartest) picks of Week 6Average difference between points won by readers and by Elo in Week 6 matchups in FiveThirtyEight’s NFL prediction game *Not including yards gained vs. the Eagles.Source: ESPN 3N.Y. GiantsPaul Perkins2512+13 3N.Y. GiantsOrleans Darkwa2254-32 YARDS GAINED/GAME 1WashingtonRob Kelley3051-21 BAL75BAL72CHI+2.4– OUR PREDICTION (ELO)READERS’ PREDICTION CAR57CAR53PHI+1.4– GB56GB66MIN-14.2– 6CarolinaJonathan Stewart-450-54 NO58DET51NO-11.3– OAK68OAK61LAC+5.7– 5ArizonaChris Johnson2131-10 HOU83HOU85HOU-1.0– CORRECTION (Oct. 17, 6 p.m.): A previous version of this article incorrectly said that if the Eagles were to win the NFC East this season, it would be the eighth consecutive season that the division would have a different champion. It would be the 13th season.Check out our latest NFL predictions. 2Kansas CityKareem Hunt81110-29 Running backs perform poorly against the EaglesRushing yards gained against the Eagles vs. season average against other teams, among running backs with five or more carries in games against Philadelphia JAX66%JAX55%LAR+10.5– KC77KC73PIT+3.2– TEN59TEN63TEN+0.3– The domination of the Eagles’ front seven has meant that opposing teams have been forced to try their luck through the air. Philly ranks 29th in the league in total passing yards given up per game, but that’s largely because opposing teams have launched an onslaught on the Eagles’ secondary — Philly’s defense ranks No.1 in the league in pass attempts faced. Also, the Eagles have already faced Kirk Cousins, Alex Smith, Philip Rivers and Carson Palmer — four of the top six quarterbacks in passing yards per game through Week 6. When you strip the numbers back, the Eagles’ defense ranks 17th in the league in yards given up per passing attempt and 14th in opponents’ passer rating — still not great, but not terrible either.On the other side of the ball, the Eagles have gotten by with a balanced offense that ranks third in the league in total yards gained per game. Second-year quarterback Carson Wentz is off to a solid start to the year — Wentz has thrown 13 touchdowns and three interceptions and has a 99.6 passer rating through six games. And Eagles fans may be thinking this is the return of the Wentz they saw in the first three games of last season, when the team started 3-0 and before Wentz threw 14 interceptions in his final 13 games (when the team went 4-9). Thanks to the contributions of tight end Zach Ertz and running back LeGarrette Blount, Philadelphia is the only team in the league to have three players averaging more than 50 receiving yards per game2 and a running back averaging more than 60 rushing yards per game.3 With much of the hype surrounding the team’s defense, the offense has quietly emerged as one of the most dynamic in the game.So can the Eagles keep on winning? The answer might be “yes” — in the regular season at least. The Eagles’ opponents in their remaining 10 games have an average team Elo rating of 1484 (that’s a metric that estimates each team’s skill level using only the final scores and locations of each game — an Elo rating of roughly 1500 is considered average). Of those 10, just two — Washington and the Los Angeles Rams — have top-10 passing offenses (by passing yards per game). With Rodgers down for what could be the rest of the season, the Eagles could do some damage in the playoffs too. Now, obviously, a lot can change with 11 weeks remaining in the regular season, but of NFC teams currently in playoff positions, only the Saints’ Drew Brees ranks in the top 10 in passing yards per game.FiveThirtyEight vs. the crowdWeek 6 in our NFL prediction game — in which we invite you to pick football games and try to outsmart our Elo algorithm — was full of surprises. In fact, it was the fifth-most-upset-laden week in the NFL since the 1970 AFL-NFL merger, according to the Brier Score of this week’s games (that’s a measure used to show how accurate each team’s pre-game win probabilities were).There were multiple games that both our Elo algorithm and you, the readers, got wrong. One of the biggies was the Green Bay-Minnesota game — but readers really took a bath on the Packers’ defeat, losing 14.2 points on average even compared with Elo. Readers also lost big when the Giants won (you read that right) on the road against the Broncos. It wasn’t all bad for readers, though — their best game of the week came when the Rams beat the Jaguars on the road (that’s what Elo gets for betting on the Jags). PICKWIN PROB.PICKWIN PROB.WINNERREADERS’ NET PTS NE67NE78NE+3.7– WSH83WSH80WSH-2.9– WK.TEAMPLAYERVS. EAGLESSEASON AVG.*DIFF. ATL78ATL83MIA-9.5– 4L.A. ChargersMelvin Gordon2267-45 DEN77DEN84NYG-13.6– ARI58TB53ARI-12.4– In Week 6, the NFL’s best showed off their very worst. The Falcons blew a 17-0 lead to the Dolphins at home. The Patriots flirted with disaster against the Jets. The Chiefs were uncharacteristically lackluster in a loss at home. And the Packers suffered the worst loss of all when Aaron Rodgers broke his collarbone. One contender that did take care of business: the Philadelphia Eagles. And it might be time to start taking them seriously.The Eagles beat the Panthers on the road on Thursday to improve to 5-1, and it appears that the NFC East could have its 13th consecutive season with a different champion (don’t even think about it, Giants fans). The Eagles now have a 76 percent chance of winning the division according to FiveThirtyEight’s NFL forecast; that’s the best chance of ending the season atop a division for any team other than the Chiefs. While it might be too early to bet the house that the Eagles will win the Super Bowl, there are plenty of reasons for optimism.Philadelphia’s defense is one major reason. Through Week 6, Doug Pederson’s rush defense is ranked No.1, surrendering just 66 yards per game. The Eagles have been so good that the 394 total yards that their defense has given up on the ground are the fewest they’ve conceded through six games in 63 years. Oh, and rookie sensation Kareem Hunt of the Chiefs is the only running back to rush for more than 35 yards1 against the Eagles this season, and even he ran for less than he has against other opponents this season, on average.
Ohio State senior forward Jae’Sean Tate addressed questions about the FBI’s ongoing fraud and bribery investigation in college basketball during Ohio State’s media day Wednesday at the Schottenstein Center. Ohio State is not implicated in the investigation. Credit: Nick Clarkson | Social Media EditorOhio State men’s basketball players said Wednesday they were aware of the ongoing FBI investigation into college basketball corruption, but made clear they hadn’t experienced anything similar to the allegations. Sophomore center Micah Potter said he had not experienced any illegal recruiting and added that former head coach Thad Matta had done things the right way while on the recruiting trail.“It’s definitely unfortunate. I’m glad they found out about it ’cause obviously it’s wrong,” Potter said. “I saw it on social media and then it’s all over ESPN. It’s unfortunate, but I’m glad it got caught.”The college basketball world was rocked Tuesday with the FBI’s announcement of a wide-ranging fraud and bribery scandal involving 10 people, including Power 5 schools, financial advisors and a top Adidas executive. The FBI has subpoenaed employees of Nike’s AAU circuit, EYBL, and documents, according to sports attorney Darren Heitner.Assistant coaches from Auburn, Arizona, Oklahoma State and USC have been charged with fraud, corruption and bribery, among other charges from the ongoing investigation. Ohio State has not been mentioned in the investigation.According to FBI documents, assistant coaches accepted cash bribes to funnel players financial advisors and agents in one scheme, and James Gatto, director of global marketing for Adidas basketball, gave six-figure payments to three individuals to steer those recruits to programs affiliated with the company.Louisville placed coach Rick Pitino and athletic director Tom Jurich on unpaid administrative leave Wednesday after the FBI released evidence that an assistant coach allegedly planned to pay $100,000 to the father of an All-American recruit.Senior forward Jae’Sean Tate would not comment on the investigations because he said he did not have enough details to properly speak on the situation.“There’s always going to be rumors, but for me, personally, I never experienced or seen it with my own eyes, so there’s not really much I can say about it,” Tate said. “But obviously, if the FBI are investigating, things have happened.”The investigation is ongoing and more schools than the aforementioned four could be in hot water as the FBI continues its investigation. Sophomore Andre Wesson also said he experienced no foul play in the recruiting process. He emphasized that he had no concern with the investigations because it did not affect the team.“It’s crazy … I’m not really worried about that,” Wesson said. “I’m just worried about here and Ohio State and what we can do.”
Ohio State redshirt junior linebacker Dante Booker intercepts a pass in the second quarter of the Buckeyes game against Rutgers on Sept. 30. Credit: Jack Westerheide | Photo EditorNo. 9 Ohio State released its Week 13 depth chart ahead of its matchup against No. 24 Michigan. The only changes made from last week’s depth chart came from special teams.At kickoff specialist, freshman Blake Haubeil was named as the only starter at the position, no longer being listed as a co-starter with redshirt junior Sean Nuernberger.There were no other changes made to the depth chart. Redshirt senior linebacker Chris Worley was still listed as co-starter at middle linebacker with redshirt freshman Tuf Borland despite starting outside last week in the place of redshirt junior linebacker Dante Booker. Booker, who has missed the past two games with an injury, was listed as a co-starter at the position alongside sophomore Malik Harrison. However, Booker was cleared by head coach Urban Meyer on Tuesday’s Big Ten coaches teleconference.Here is the rest of the depth chart:
Kylian Mbappe admits that his life has been turned upside down, but is happy living the dreamThe teenage sensation is already a global superstar with the likes of France legend David Trezeguet tipping Mbappe to succeed Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi as the world’s best player.The 19-year-old striker has already been in the headlines across Europe for years and was the most expensive signing of the recent summer transfer window at €180m, when PSG made him a permanent member of the squad.With his profile currently at an all-time high, Mbappe has made the cover of this Friday’s edition of Time magazine‘s international edition.In the interview, Mbappe talks about how he became a superstar and confessed that all of his dreams are already coming true.“My life has been totally turned upside down. I am happy, and I am living the life I always dreamed of.PSG ultras sent a warning letter to Neymar Manuel R. Medina – September 14, 2019 Brazilian superstar Neymar might play today his first game of the season for Paris Saint-Germain and the team’s ultras have warned him.“I think I might have missed out on something. I did not have the moments of so-called normal people during adolescence, like going out with friends, enjoying good times.”Mbappe is expected to lead France’s attack in tonight’s game against Iceland in Guingamp with kick-off set to begin at 21:00 (CEST).Time magazine have featured @KMbappe on their international edition 🤩(📸 via @TIME) pic.twitter.com/l7rwjZRU5R— B/R Football (@brfootball) October 11, 2018
Leicester City manager Claude Puel who is already used to playing in the Champions League during his career has emphasized the importance of ambition being included as part of the competition.Following their Premier League title heroics, Puel’s team featured in Europe’s elite competition during the 2016-17 season.On the other hand, Leicester greets West Ham to the King Power on Saturday, having grabbed nine points without reaching the top four places.“When I was a player or when I was a manager in France I managed and played a lot of international games – Champions League games, Europa League,” Puel said via Sky Sport.“It’s important to have the ambition and I hope for the club to find this competition again.Liverpool legend Nicol slams Harry Maguire’s Man United form Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Steve Nicol believes Harry Maguire has made some “horrendous mistakes” recently, and has failed to find his best form since joining Manchester United.“I hope we can find this level again. When I look at the games on Tuesday and Wednesday nights it’s hard. I would like to find the possibility again with this club.“If we continue to work with consistency and stability, why not?“When Leicester were champions, the season after it was difficult to have the consistency in Premier League and Europe.“When the club doesn’t have the habits to play every three days it’s difficult to maintain good results. Leicester needs to go step-by-step, to find good stability.”
Rangers manager might not have personally identified McGregor prior to his emergence as manager but he is happy to have endorsed the deal as McGregor has saved the club severally over the past five months.The Rangers shot-stopper was brilliant on Thursday in the Club’s Europa League tie against Villarreal on a night when his defence was shaky. McGregor twice denied Villareal’s Karl Toko Ekambi in one-to-one situations to secure a vital point for Rangers.Gerrard was quoted on Daily Mail: ”I can’t believe we got Allan for free. I think it was a stroke of genius from Mark Allen,”‘You need to take age and everything into consideration now but if you could knock a decade off Allan, he would be worth a hell of a lot of money.”Owen reveals why Liverpool didn’t offer Gerrard a new contract Manuel R. Medina – September 6, 2019 According to Owen, the Reds wanted to sell Gerrard two years before he left the club and that’s why they didn’t offer him a contract renewal.“He could comfortably be part of most teams. To achieve in the biggest games in any league, you need a top goalie. That is the foundation you build on.””When I decided to take over, that’s an area I was keen to add to. Speaking to our recruitment team, when I knew McGregor was available and keen to come back – desperate to come back – it was a no-brainer for me.”On their upcoming fixtures, Gerrard continued:“When we came back from the international break, we saw this period right up to the Celtic game as a really tough period. But it is full of exciting games, games the players should enjoy and look forward to playing in.”‘The next two fixtures are big for us, six important points, but we need to focus on Hearts first. It would be nice to sit top after the weekend but we have to earn the right. You get nothing this early for it.”
Kolkata: West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee has written a letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi urging him to consider the contribution of business houses to the chief minister’s relief funds (CMRF) as money spent on corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. The letter, a copy of which is with PTI, pointed out “one major infirmity in the present CSR framework as provided in the Companies Act 2013”, concerning the interest of the states. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights While contributions to the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (PMNRF) was mentioned as an eligible activity under the CSR in the 2013 Act, the same made to the CMRF was not considered as an activity “eligible for contribution under the CSR”, she wrote in the letter. “It will indeed be praiseworthy if contribution to CMRF in the states is also made an eligible activity under CSR. The little contribution would be very helpful to all the states to extend the much-desired assistance and relief to people in need,” the letter read. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed Stating that the CMRF is always under financial constraints because of limited donations from the companies, Banerjee has written that if the proposal is accepted by the Centre, the “contributions” will also enable the donors to claim tax breaks. “You may be aware that West Bengal, like other states of the country, has an established CMRF, similar to the PMNRF. We have been using the fund to provide medical, education and other kinds of relief to the most needy and distressed people in their times of grave financial crisis. However due to paucity of funds, “we are not being able to fulfill all the requests made for support,” her letter read. The current regime of the CSR in the country was introduced with the notification of Section 135 of the Companies Act 2013 and the CSR Policy Rules, 2014. It mandates that from April 1, 2014 every company, private limited or public limited, which either has a net worth of Rs 500 crore or a turnover of Rs 1,000 crore or net profit of Rs 5 crore, has to spend at least 2 percent of its average net profit for the immediately preceding three financial years on corporate social responsibility activities.