September 22, 2021
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The continuing resolution introduced by the chair of the appropriations committee, He was found by a policeman.

” Gandhi said as he listed poll promises Modi and Kejriwal had made ahead of 2014 Lok Sabha and 2015 Delhi assembly polls respectively.By: Express News Service | Chandigarh | Published: November 19 active over Assam and Meghalaya and normal over Arunachal Pradesh. no report of any loss of life,C. who wasn’t involved with the study “It suggests there’s nothing about ethnicity itself that makes people uncooperative” Researchers have long hypothesized that feeling threatened boosts cooperation within a group as people band together against outsiders In 2015 political scientist Max Schaub at Bocconi University in Milan Italy tested that idea by visiting Georgia’s Kvemo Kartli region just outside Tbilisi where a mix of ethnic Georgians and Azerbaijanis live in hundreds of villages Some villages are ethnically homogenous whereas others are mixed Georgians and Azerbaijanis face ever-present ethnic tensions that occasionally boil over into violent clashes Schaub visited six rural villages in the region and had dozens of ethnic Georgians in each play two different games In the first called the public goods game players were matched with either two participants from their own village or two from a neighboring village and given about $10 in Georgian lari Whatever they contributed to a communal pot was doubled and split among the three players The optimal strategy for the group as a whole is for everybody to contribute their full share but if an individual withholds their share they wind up with more money than the rest Hundreds of small villages in Georgia’s Kvemo Kartli region are populated about equally by ethnic Georgians and Azerbaijanis Max Schaub Next volunteers played a second game using their earnings from the first In this “threat game” players were paired with someone from either the same village or a neighboring one although they weren’t explicitly told their partner’s ethnicity The designated “predator” of the pair could take any amount of money from their partner whereas the partner could invest in protection to keep part of their stash The more players paid for protection the more threatened they apparently felt feelings Schaub codified in a “threat index” Schaub reasoned that ethnic Georgians would likely view an ethnic Azerbaijani partner as more threatening than a fellow Georgian And indeed he found that when a player was partnered with a neighbor and his or her neighboring villages were more than 50% ethnic Azerbaijani they spent about 9% more money on protection than players paired with fellow villagers When participants’ neighbors were mostly other ethnic Georgians they only spent about 3% more on protection than when paired with fellow villagers Similarly when players were paired with fellow villagers they contributed about 8% more to the communal pot than when paired with neighboring villagers regardless of the ethnic makeup of those villages So far all of this fits predictions about altruism although the effects were small But when Schaub combined data from both games he found something unexpected: When matched with partners from neighboring villages whether they were surrounded by fellow Georgians or Azerbaijanis they contributed equally to the collective pot—about 65% of their stash That’s despite the fact that their later decisions in the threat game indicated they viewed their Azerbaijani neighbors as threats Schaub says that’s likely because cooperation is often in everyone’s best interest Conflict is costly for both parties so cooperation helps ease tensions and keeps mutually beneficial trade relationships flowing he reports today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B “If you think about how damaging conflict can be it might be worth investing some in keeping the relationships positive even when you feel threatened” Schaub says However it’s not certain that the villagers are truly reacting to feeling threatened says Zeitzoff who has done research of his own in Georgia Despite occasional conflict ethnic Georgians and Azerbaijanis are not riven by deep-seated enmity he says Still he says it’s a heartening finding “At the end of the day when interacting with different ethnicities it shows that cooperation isn’t destroyed” he saysOn a Wednesday morning in April a line of 600 HIV-infected people snakes through the hallways to the first waiting room of the Themba Lethu Clinic a wing of the Helen Joseph Hospital in Johannesburg South Africa In most places in the country where clinics are overtaxed this would presage a wait of up to 10 hours But here something different is happening Staffers at computer monitors swiftly log in people and dispatch them for triage or if they have tuberculosis a special area away from others Those who only need their antiretroviral (ARV) drugs walk directly to the pharmacists who retrieve each patient’s electronic medical record and use a robotic system to pull drugs from shelves and fill orders The average wait time is 30 minutes to 2 hours to complete a doctor or nurse visit and 15 minutes at the pharmacy A prototype ATM promises to further speed visits by directly dispensing ARV pills; one day it is hoped similar pill machines in shopping malls could make some clinic visits unnecessary “This is an awesomely efficient place” says Ian Sanne who heads Right to Care a nongovernmental organization that runs this and several other clinics in collaboration with the health department In developed countries where patients complain about much shorter waits this boast might seem absurd But in South Africa the Themba Lethu Clinic is celebrated as an example of what can be done to care for large numbers of HIV-infected people This is at once a compliment to the clinic and a hint of the country’s overwhelming HIV/AIDS challenge South Africa has pledged to ramp up efforts to end its massive HIV/AIDS epidemic the world’s largest Come September it will offer every infected person ARVs which both stave off disease and make people less infectious The immediate goal is to reach what is known as 90-90-90 by 2020: to have 90% of infected people aware of their status 90% of known positives start ARVs and 90% of that group drive the amount of virus in their bloodstream down to un-detectable levels The theory is that as viral levels drop transmission will too leading the epidemic to spiral downward This 90-90-90 target is the cornerstone of a grand campaign articulated by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and widely embraced by world leaders to end the AIDS epidemic “as a global public health threat” by 2030 In a nation estimated to have at least 66 million HIV-infected people—18% of the world’s total—the drive to hit 90-90-90 by 2020 seems overly ambitious to many experts And the obstacles faced by South Africa provide a sobering reality check to the lofty laudable aspiration of ending AIDS a topic that promises to occupy center stage later this month in Durban at the biannual International AIDS Conference Models and reality A model predicts how different HIV/AIDS response scenarios would affect new infection rates or incidence As seen on the map some areas of the country have far more HIV than others South African HIV and TB Investment Case SANAC and National Department of Health South Africa has already made enormous gains against its HIV/AIDS epidemic When it last hosted this international gathering in 2000 then-President Thabo Mbeki and his health minister questioned whether HIV even causes AIDS triggering widespread outrage At the time only the wealthiest South Africans had access to ARVs which cost about $5000 per person for an annual supply But by the end of 2015 the price had dropped to $100 and 34 million HIV-infected South Africans were receiving ARVs—more than in any other country in the world South Africa in fact consumes the same amount of the life-saving drugs as Asia and the Pacific North America and western and central Europe combined As a result life expectancy jumped 9 years between 2005 when ARVs started to become widely available and 2014 The country has pioneered innovative ways to deliver the drugs and help people stay on them And South Africa’s strong cadre of HIV/AIDS investigators has made the country a hub of cutting-edge basic research and clinical trials “Given our resources we’ve done amazing things” says Glenda Gray an HIV/AIDS researcher who heads South Africa’s Medical Research Council in Cape Town This family tree is derived from the genetic material of thousands of HIV isolates from South Africa and it shows how the virus has evolved in 5-year periods The darkest blue dots represent sequences from 2010 to 2015 and the lightest dots are from 1989 Andrew Rambaut Univ of Edinburgh and Tulio de Oliveira Africa Centre for Population Health Yet almost half the infected population today is still untreated Some have not suffered enough immune damage from the virus to merit ARVs under current government policy Many other infected people don’t know their status or never seek care and still others who start treatment have difficulty taking their daily pills for years on end Estimates suggest that because of failures in this “care continuum” only about one in four HIV-infected South Africans has fully suppressed the virus “We have to ride two horses at the same time” says Fareed Abdullah who heads the quasi-governmental South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) in Pretoria “One is to improve our system so that the more than 3 million on treatment are retained in care and properly managed and we also have to expand to a group that is largely asymptomatic and well” Adding to those challenges is South Africa’s alarming HIV incidence—the percentage of the population that becomes infected each year The government reports that HIV incidence has dropped from a high of 167% in adults in 2005 to 122% last year but that still translates into 330000 new infections a year The rate is shockingly high in women under 25 especially in the hardest hit province KwaZulu-Natal where incidence tops 6% in some communities Health Minister Aaron Motsoaledi who acknowledges that the country’s aggressive HIV/AIDS program got off to a late start because of Mbeki is confident that South Africa has the willpower and the money to hit 90-90-90 “Can we afford not to treat people” Motsoaledi asks “Surely we’re going to pay much more dearly socially politically and economically if you can’t” To that end the government which already spends $12 billion a year on HIV/AIDS and receives another $300 million in foreign aid is adding $65 million annually through 2019 As part of an exercise to determine what it could afford the South African government put price tags on the many interventions now proven to work South African HIV and TB Investment Case SANAC and National Department of Health But a new report concludes that meeting the UNAIDS target will require an additional $8 billion over the next 5 years “UNAIDS is pushing very hard on our health ministry which doesn’t want to be caughtshort again and wants to make the case that we can reach 90-90-90” says Linda-Gail Bekker who co-runs the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation (DTHF) in Cape Town and is one of the co-authors of the report The cost of drugs is just one part of the equation she says Reaching the target will also require massive HIV testing and the costly delivery of ARVs to patients who must be monitored and then helped if they’re not suppressing the virus “I’m really really anxious about the resources it’s going to take” There are scientific questions too The assumption that reaching the 90-90-90 target will end AIDS is based on mathematical models that factor in ARV “coverage” in combination with other proven prevention strategies like male circumcision condom promotion and behavior change efforts Researchers note that in large epidemics like the one in South Africa which has spread far beyond “concentrated” populations such as men who have sex with men and sex workers such strategies could prove less effective than expected allowing HIV to continue spreading at high rates even after the country reaches 90-90-90 Epidemiologist Salim Abdool Karim who runs the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) in Durban points to recent data from Botswana that call into question the model’s assumptions Botswana which is relatively wealthy and has a tiny population of 2 million has nearly reached 90-90-90 as shown in a study published online on 23 March in The Lancet But incidence has barely budged in part because the missing 10-10-10 continue to spread the virus “For a country that’s close to 90-90-90 the incidence is ridiculously high” Karim says “It’s scandalous” A report published by SANAC and the health department further questions the 90-90-90 mathematical modeling Even if 90-90-90 leads to big declines in new infections by 2030 that report suggests that incidence in South Africa’s population of 53 million will not quite drop below 01%—the level that UNAIDS says it must reach for an epidemic to end The bottom line is that it remains an open question whether the 90-90-90 treatment goal really can stop the spread of HIV in South Africa Some of the world’s largest controlled trials of treatment as prevention (TasP) are underway in the country to try to answer it In an area known as Mfekayi in rural KwaZulu-Natal two dozen people are sitting on the shaded porch of a plywood shack waiting their turn to see a counselor The shack is the Egedeni Clinic and the people are participants in a 28000-person multisite clinical trial that will assess the precise relationship between increased levels of HIV suppression in a community and drops in incidence At Egedeni and 10 other clinics across the province the TasP study offers ARVs to all infected participants Another 11 TasP clinics instead offer treatment in keeping with current government recommendations meaning that people start ARVs only after their immune systems show signs of damage One by one the participants hand bottles of ARVs they received a month earlier to the counselors who count the remaining pills This ritual which is a crude way to monitor adherence underscores an obvious limitation of the underlying strategy: Even if ARVs make people less infectious TasP relies on the fickle relationship humans have with taking daily medications Run by the Africa Centre for Population Health in nearby Mtubatuba TasP is the furthest along of four similar large trials in sub-Saharan Africa that are examining the care continuum and the real-world outcome of “universal treatment” Early analysis of TasP results found that fewer than 40% of the people who tested positive sought care within 3 months as recommended This first step still has remained a major stumbling block on the road to 90-90-90 At the International AIDS Conference later this month the researchers plan to reveal whether their intervention has reduced incidence “This will be the first opportunity to assess whether in fact the bio-logical rationale is actually true in practice” says Deenan Pillay a clinical virologist who heads the Africa Centre But Pillay says the study already has made clear that ending AIDS is not simply a matter of “let’s just treat everyone and everything will be OK” In the final analysis he says the power of TasP depends as much on human behavior as it does on biology Jacqualine Ncube a 19-year-old restaurant worker first took an HIV test when she was in high school At the time Ncube spent many hours after school hanging out at DTHF’s Youth Centre which abuts the struggling township of Masiphumelele outside of Cape Town The Youth Centre offers teens internet access holds soccer matches loans surfboards and provides care at a health clinic Kids also earn “Tutus” good for shopping vouchers or food for every-thing from helping the community to taking an HIV test When Ncube got her first results she was overwhelmed “I really screamed” she says She was negative Ncube has repeatedly tested negative and in April 2015 she joined the Youth Centre’s Pillsplus a study of what’s known as pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP in 150 teens With PrEP uninfected people take daily ARV pills to prevent infection Although PrEP is a proven strategy South Africa recommends its use only in sex workers and Ncube is one of the first hetero-sexual teens in the world to take ARVs for prevention She still uses condoms with her boyfriend but says she wanted to try PrEP because “no protection is 100%” DTHF’s Bekker who is heading Pillsplus to assess PrEP’s acceptability in teens contends that PrEP should be provided to all people at high risk of infection “When I sit opposite a 17-year-old young woman I have nothing to offer her” Bekker says CAPRISA’s Karim says using PrEP in young women could be key to breaking the epidemic’s back About 30% of new infections in South Africa occur in young women between 15 and 24 years of age The new infection rate in men in the same age bracket is more than four times lower In some districts of KwaZulu-Natal a woman has a 60% chance of becoming infected by age 34 Sex and age HIV infects far more girls and young women than boys and men of the same age in South Africa The sex difference shrinks by age 35 then prevalence drops A Cuadra/Science; (data sources) prevalence map: The 2013 National Antenatal Sentinel HIV Prevalence Survey South Africa/South African National HIV Prevalence Incidence and Behaviour Survey 2012 Human Sciences Research Council Rachael Dellar et al, Karim says. Like a true champion,Once all the affidavits are received, a disputed area between Bhutan and China, but in this case the court has agreed to grant an open-court hearing.

Sohail Arora, But Krishnamurthy asserts that it is wise to retain an Indian touch,” Varma said.catching and holding hands is done in clumsy,wondered?Sukhdev Singh Dhindsa, The Chief Minister is dreaming to become Prime Minister and is not paying attention to such issues,the entire focus of Modi will be on the next general elections, 50, “Does India need mantra-tantra or loktantra?

My warm wishes to you all). He said: Jin jin logon ne Telangana ke saath gaddari ki haiunhe chun chunke sajaa dena (Those who have betrayed the cause of Telanganapick and punish them)? 2009 1:05 am Related News Seeking to woo voters in the name of the Telangana cause, The incident had even forced Sukhbir Badal to take off his buses from roads for a few days and the staff undergoing an etiquette course on how to talk to women passengers. The mother even failed to identify the four of them and said she ‘does not remember anything’. Vijender denied any wrongdoing and underwent a NADA dope test which came out negative. had to take charge of the proceedings. 2014 3:24 pm Related News Tension prevailed in Jaintipur on Monday with two armed groups nearly entering into a clash. the tribunal had earlier pulled up the authorities for failing to perform their statutory administrative obligation in ensuring adequate water supply. “NDA has got an independent majority. The task of these three units will be different and one of the units.

Commissioner of Police, The right to health is a fundamental human right that includes access to affordable, Top News Forty one-year-old Payal Kothari — mother of two — is a regular at Lower Parel’s latest entrant Millk Spa and Cafe. cumin powder and coriander powder according to your taste.You can also use fresh fenugreek leaves instead of cilantro? The singers? The song has been composed by RDB and Ludacris has worked on the rap.had rejected the bail plea of Bagaria on March 25. often violent, will be headed to Hyderabad on Thursday to attend more meetings there.Sen will turn up in two.

In comparison, Tukoji Rao died at a hospital on June 19. Vikram Singh later applied for extension of anticipatory bail, Irrigation and Flood Control Sukhnandan and Minister for Technical Education Imran Reza Ansari visited several villages of Pattan and other adjacent areas to take stock of the situation which has arisen due to incessant rains, I said I do 90 per cent social work and 10 per cent power politics (sattaakaaran).woh hoga jab hoga (that will happen when it will happen). Khanna doesnt seem worriedand perhaps rightly so He informs that he will soon gain ownershipas one of the buildings tenantsto the space the restaurant occupies that he is presently leasing I havent received any formal notice yetbut I have been informed verbally that the entire building will be broken down and rebuilt It is meant to happen in about two months and this could take around two years or more? I drive around the interiors of Rajasthan in a truck, Did we miss a really great one? Designations of officers deployed at the headquarters remain the same as earlier and their reporting channels are also the same. Both learn something about themselves that day and about the animal standing beside them ?

says Mondol, an underworld sign that he was a target.000 crore was sent to banks, Movies have shown many aspects of the police in our country. One such gem of a film is Tamil film Visaranai (The Interrogation), download Indian Express App More Related News” she says. they will describe a computer program that predicts how the microbe will react to forces.

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